R&R2MHP for youths and adults with mental health problems and R&R2ADHD for youths and adults with ADHD are cognitive skills programmes based on a cognitive behavioural paradigm.  The programmes consist of group sessions (16 for R&R2MHP and 15 for R&R2ADHD) that are supplemented by one-to-one meetings with a mentor (called a ‘Pal’) who provides a ‘bridge’ that supports the individual to apply newly acquired skills learned in the group into their daily activities. Click here for a summary of the two programmes.

Click here to download the R&R2MHP and R&R2ADHD Handbooks.

The published empirical evidence for the programmes are summarised within the Handbooks.  Click here for the outcomes of the Danish Registry study


B-BAARS ADHD screen for offenders

The Brief-Barkley Adult ADHD Rating Scale (B-BAARS) has been developed as a brief assessment to screen for ADHD in adults who are in the criminal justice system. It has been shown to accruately predict the likelihood of receiving a clinical diagnosis using DSM-5 criteria. Please contact us if you are interested in translating B-BAARS into other languages.  

B-BAARS English B-BAARS Suomi B-BAARS Afrikaans

Blame Attribution Inventory

The Gudjonsson Blame Attribution Inventory - Revised (GBAI-R) is a self-reported measure of an individual’s blame attribution. It is for use with offenders and frames the statements in relation to the attribution of their previously committed crime(s). The inventory measures three factors: mental element attribution (i.e. blaming responsibility for the crime on mental illness or poor self-control), external attribution (i.e. blaming the crime on social circumstances, victims, or society), and guilt feeling attribution (i.e. feelings of regret and remorse concerning the offence). Comparing an individual offender’s score on each of these three factors with the appropriate normative scores allows for a profile of their blame attribution type to be created.



The Disruptive Behaviour and Social Problem Scale (DBSP) is a 14-item informant-rated questionnaire relating to a person’s behaviour and social interactions that can be used in both residential and community settings.


The PAMPA Scales

The PAMPA scales (the Patient Attitude Questionnaire, the Patient Perception Questionnaire and the Patient Motivation Inventory) were developed to assess patients’ satisfaction with their stay in hospital, their motivation for treatment and readiness for discharge. Clinical research has found that these scales, which have been extensively used in clinical practice, are useful and predictive in the recovery approach to care. 


STARS: Substances and Transitions Addictions Rating Scale

The Substance and Transitions Addiction Rating Scale (STARS) was developed to investigate the pathways and motivations underlying substance misuse. Drawing upon clinical expertise in addiction and forensic mental health services and working in conjunction with existing theory, the questionnaire was designed to incorporate all aspects of substance misuse, including factors associated with initiation, transitioning, persistence, dependence and cessation.


ADHD and offending

The European Brain Council interviewed Professor Susan Young about ADHD and offending and published the article in their 2015 Newsletter, which is widely circulated around the European commission/parliament.  The newsletter can be downloaded by clicking the link below and the article “ADHD in Prisons: treat the offenders, reduce the crime” is on page 18. 

EBC news article Online Resources